In today's advanced industrial manufacturing, lasers are more and more widely used, such as laser welding / solder welding, cutting, marking, engraving, cleaning, etc., but people still have a long way to go to understand and pay attention to the harmfulness of smoke generated during laser processing It is far from enough. Below we list some by-products produced in different laser processing processes, which are for reference and warning only. It is hoped that the majority of laser equipment operators, EHS departments and senior management departments, laser equipment manufacturers, etc. will attract sufficient attention and take effective and continuous protective measures or suggestions.
1.1 Metal processing
When processing metals, heavy metal vapors are generated. These vapors can damage human organs and tissues. From a medical point of view, at least the following metals and their compounds are influential: manganese Mn, chromium Cr, nickel Ni, cobalt Co, aluminum Al, zinc Zn, copper Cu, beryllium Be, lead Pb, antimony Sb. Medical effects include:
Toxic (Cr + 6, Mn),
Allergic reactions (Zn, Cu),
Pulmonary fibrosis (Be),
Carcinogenic (Cr + 6, NiO), etc.
1.2 Plastic cutting
When cutting plastics, a variety of potentially hazardous substances may be produced. At lower temperatures, aliphatic hydrocarbons are produced, while at higher temperatures, aromatic hydrocarbons (like benzene, PAH) and polyhalogenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (eg, dioxins, furans) increase. Some of these substances may produce cyanide, isocyanate (PU), acrylate (PMMA), and hydrogen oxide (PVC). Medical effects include:
Toxic: derivatives of cyanide, CO, benzene;
Allergens / irritants: isocyanates, acrylates;
Respiratory tract irritation: toluene, acrolein, amines;
Carcinogenic: benzene, certain PAH substances.
1.3 Ceramic processing
Aluminum oxide Al2O3, magnesium Mg, calcium Ca and silicon Si oxide; beryllium oxide BeO (very toxic).
1.4 Wafer processing
The debris of silicon Si and silicon oxide floating in the air (may be sucked into the lung lobes and can cause silicosis).
1.5 Cutting paper and wood
General cellulose by-products, esters, acids, ethanol, benzene, etc.