????????1. Management of using the first-level laser Since the first-level laser is a harmless and control-free laser, no control measures are required. The laser does not have to use warning signs, but it is necessary to avoid looking directly at the first-level laser beam for a long time.
2. Safety measures for the use of the second-level laser The second-level laser is a low-level laser. If the human eye is irradiated occasionally, it will not cause damage. The continuous observation of the laser beam can damage the eye. Therefore, the laser beam cannot be directly viewed for a long time, which is the most important control measure for the second-stage laser. In addition, warning signs should also be posted on the door of the room where the second-level laser is placed, and on the casing and operation panel of the laser.
3． Safety measures for the use of the third-level laser Because the third-level laser is a medium-power laser, which may cause eye damage, measures must be taken for this level of laser to ensure safety:
(1) Educate and train the staff who operate the laser to make them understand the potential dangers that may occur when operating this level of laser, and provide them with appropriate laser safety training and when they are in danger Emergency treatment method. Because laser damage to the eyes is irreversible, training and education to understand and master the safe use of lasers is really necessary.
(2) Engineering technology management Management of the use of lasers must be carried out by professional (vocational) personnel, and personnel who are not trained or educated may not use the laser machine without permission. If the trigger system on the laser is equipped with an interlock key switch, make sure that the trigger can only be triggered after the interlock switch is opened with the key, and cannot be started after the key is removed. For the room where the laser is installed, there must be bright light. In a bright light environment, the pupil of the eye is reduced to prevent the amount of light entering the retina from being transmitted when the laser beam enters the eye. For the height of the laser, the laser beam path should avoid the horizontal position of the eyes of normal people when standing or sitting, and the visual axis cannot be parallel to the light exit.
(3) The laser should be strictly controlled. Do not aim the laser beam at the human body, especially the eyes, for no reason in the storage room. Because it is extremely difficult to recover the damage to the eyes caused by the laser, it is permanent damage, and each person has only one pair of eyes in their lives. Everyone must always keep in mind that before starting the laser, the personnel at the scene must be warned of possible hazards and wear Wear safety glasses. Danger signs are posted on the obvious positions of the working area with strong lasers and the doors of the laser operating room and laboratory.
(4) Laser controlled area The third-level laser must only use laser equipment in a certain area. Set up door guards and safe spring locks, interlocks, etc. according to general requirements to ensure that outsiders and unprotected persons are not allowed to enter the controlled area. Even if the door is opened accidentally, the excitation of the laser can be stopped immediately. The room should not be transparent to prevent harmful laser beams from leaking out. At the same time, an emergency switch is set up so that the laser can be stopped when it is in a dangerous situation.
(5) The user of the laser must understand the structure and safety protection of the laser. After the evaluation, a third-level laser license can be issued, and the licensed staff can be qualified to operate the laser.
For non-workers, those who are not related to work must be strictly prohibited from entering the laser control area. Visitors must obtain permission from supervisors and make them aware of the potential dangers of such lasers before taking necessary protective measures before entering. Non-workers cannot enter the laser control area to turn on the equipment without permission.
(6) Debug lasers Take strict protective measures when debugging the laser optical system to ensure that human eyes are not irradiated by the original laser beam and mirror reflection beam. That is, the visual axis is not coaxial with the original beam and the mirror beam.
(7) Observe the laser beam with optical instruments, such as binoculars, microscopes, telescopes, etc., the possibility of laser damage to the eyes increases greatly. If this type of optical instrument is not used, it must undergo strict safety calculations, and add filters and appropriate interlocking protective equipment to ensure that the exposure of the human eye is lower than the safety standard value of the laser.
(8) Eye protection After taking the above measures, when the human eye may be exposed to lasers with super-safety standard values, it is necessary to select protective glasses with appropriate optical density to strengthen the eyes according to the wavelength of such lasers.
(9) Post warning signs on the door of the laser operating room and the conspicuous position of the laser housing and operation panel, and use the signs of 'danger' or 'attention' according to the specific hazard level of the laser. It is better to be eye-catching.
4． Fourth-stage laser Because the fourth-stage laser has the highest power output, and the light wave is not felt by the naked eye, it is the most dangerous laser, which has the greatest chance and serious damage to the human body. Not only the original beam of the laser and the mirror-reflected beam can harm the human body, but the diffuse reflection beam can also harm the human body. Therefore, stricter control measures must be taken for the fourth-level laser, and some special management must be added.
As far as possible, the full optical path should be completely enclosed in the laser room, that is, the original beam, the mirror reflected beam and the diffuse reflected beam should be closed as much as possible. The cover should be equipped with an interlock switch to ensure the safety and health of personnel. For the fourth-level laser, only the personnel who have the correct operator and hold a license, and have key management can start the laser. There must be a 'Danger' warning sign.
Since both infrared lasers and ultraviolet lasers are invisible lasers, the control measures for these two types of lasers must be strictly operated in addition to the control measures described in the previous section. In the laser operating room, once the laser is turned on, there is a possibility to trigger the laser output at any time. This depends on the operator's sense of responsibility. Often, many accidents are caused by not strictly controlling and not operating according to procedures. Before the operation, except for those who only receive laser surgery treatment, they are not allowed to enter the laser room for non-subjects and non-workers. Due to the difficulty of laser surgery, the required laser power is different. The laser power required for major surgery is high, and there are relatively many people participating in the operation, which brings certain complexity to the indoor control. It is necessary to have experience, or the main operation of the surgeon to control or direct the laser application in the entire operation to ensure safety.