Occupational eye (face) injury accounts for about 5% of the entire industrial injury. In order to effectively protect the eyes and face from harm, different eye and face protective equipment must be selected according to different hazard factors and used correctly.
In the process of labor production, employees of enterprises often damage the eyes and face due to flying foreign objects, chemicals or light. According to statistics, occupational eye (face) injury accounts for about 5% of the entire industrial injury, while the eye area only accounts for 1/600 of the human body surface area. In other words, the eyes are more vulnerable to occupational injuries than other human organs.
How to effectively protect eyes and face from harm during work? It is most effective to improve the working environment and working conditions. When the working conditions cannot be changed temporarily, you need to choose different eye and face protection products according to the different hazard factors and use them correctly.
Occupational eye and face injury factors
Common occupational ocular and facial injury factors include foreign body injury, chemical injury, non-ionizing radiation injury, ionizing radiation injury, microwave and laser injury.
Foreign body injury
In the process of casting, machining, construction, quarrying, etc., foreign objects such as sand particles and metal debris may enter the eyes or impact the face. Some solid foreign objects fly out at high speed (such as rotating metal fragments or broken particles grinding metal objects). If they hit the eyeball or face, it may cause serious eyeball rupture or penetrating injury, facial skin rupture or nasal bone fracture .
The acid-base liquid or corrosive fumes in the production process enter the eyes or impact the facial skin, which can cause corneal or facial skin burns. In industrial production, chemical eye and face injuries are more common, and the burn caused by lye is the most serious, because lye is more likely to penetrate the skin than acid.
Non-ionizing radiation damage
In electrical welding, oxygen cutting, furnace, glass processing, hot rolling and casting, the heat source can produce strong light, ultraviolet and infrared rays at 1050 ℃ ～ 2150 ℃. Ultraviolet radiation can cause superficial tissue burns of the cornea and conjunctiva, causing the victim to suffer from photophobia, pain, tearing, blepharitis and other symptoms. Infrared radiation has a thermal effect on the eye tissue, causing chronic inflammation of the eyelids and crystal opacity (occupational cataract). Visible strong light can cause eye fatigue, blepharospasm and conjunctivitis.
Ionizing radiation damage
Alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X-rays, thermal neutrons, slow neutrons, fast neutrons, protons are often present in the atomic energy industry, nuclear power plants (such as nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines), nuclear explosions, high-energy physical tests, etc. And electronic radiation. When the total dose absorbed by the workers exceeds 22Gy, some personnel begin to develop cataracts, the incidence of which increases with the increase of the total dose.
Microwave and laser damage
Microwaves and lasers are electromagnetic waves, non-ionizing radiation. Microwaves are widely used in radar, communications, medical, detection, military, food processing and other fields. Microwave damage to human eyes is mainly due to thermal effects caused by crystal turbidity, leading to cataracts. In recent years, the application of laser in industrial, medical, scientific research, especially military fields has developed rapidly. If the laser is projected on the retina of the eye, it can cause burns. Lasers larger than 0.1μW may also cause eyeball bleeding, protein coagulation, and melting, resulting in Permanent blindness.
Classification and selection of eye and face protection products
Eye and face protection refers to protection against damage to eyes and face caused by smoke, chemicals, metal sparks, flying debris, and dust. According to the shape and structure, it is divided into three types: protective glasses, protective goggles, and protective screens.
Anti-shock glasses can prevent metal, sand, debris and other splashes from hitting the eyes, and are mostly used for turning, milling, planing, grinding and other types of work. The lenses and frames of such protective glasses are required to be very strong and not easy to break, and there should be no sharp angles on the edges that touch the eyes.
When choosing anti-impact glasses, choose the one with wings (as shown in Figure 1) to protect against impacts from the side. The lens should also choose anti-fog lenses to avoid blurring caused by the wearer's breath.
Protection goggles can not only prevent the impact of various impact objects on the eyes, but also protect against liquid splashing. In order to maintain air circulation inside and outside the eye mask, the protective eye mask is provided with indirect ventilation holes on the side (as shown in Figure 2). In the workplace where liquid chemicals are used, if there is a risk of liquid damage to the eyes, protective eye shields should be selected to protect the eyes of the workers.
But be careful, when you need to prevent dust, smoke and various harmful gases, you must choose a protective eye mask without ventilation holes, and must be in close contact with the face, the frame should be resistant to acids and alkalis. However, this protective goggles is suitable for use in a slightly toxic environment with less irritation. In the case of a relatively toxic operating environment, it should be used with a gas mask.
Anti-shock and liquid splash screen
This face screen covers all eyes and face, and has a good protection against impact and liquid splashes. If the screen is liftable and exposes your eyes, you must wear impact-resistant glasses at the same time. If there are also object strikes, dust, noise, etc. in the work place, when choosing an anti-shock and liquid splash screen, you should consider wearing it with a hard hat, mask, and earplugs (as shown in Figure 3).
Welding eye and face protector
In the welding work place, you should choose protective equipment to protect the welding arc. Welding eye and face protectors currently on the market include ordinary welding goggles (shown in Figure 4), welding goggles (shown in Figure 5) and welding protective face shields (shown in Figure 6). Welding protective screens include head-mounted, hand-held and helmet-mounted screens.
In actual use, welding protective eye masks or welding protective screens should be used as much as possible, because wearing ordinary welding protective glasses, ultraviolet rays can enter the eye through the gap between the face and the protective glasses, and cannot effectively protect the ultraviolet rays and strong light in the welding arc, thus Eye damage. In addition, if welding workers are also engaged in dusty operations, such as sanding operations, they should also wear dust masks; if welding in places where objects are hit, they should wear helmet-type screens.
The heat radiation shielding panel is made of a material with strong reflectivity and good heat resistance (such as aluminum foil), or a metal film or metal coating (such as aluminum or gold plating, gold plating effect is better) is reflected on the organic glass to reflect infrared radiation , And wear goggles for observation, such as the flame temperature in the furnace. Therefore, the protective lens is required to display the red filament under the incandescent lamp. Operators of industrial kilns should wear thermal radiation shielding screens (as shown in Figure 7).
Full-face mask respirator
The full-face respirator can cover the user's mouth, nose, eyes and denomination, thus effectively preventing the impact of objects, liquid splashing, toxic and harmful gases, dust, etc., in the workplace with greater risk, especially the concentration of toxic and harmful gases Places, full-face respirator should be used (as shown in Figure 8).
Eye and face protection selection and
Precautions for use
The key to choosing protective glasses is to try it on. Everyone has a different face shape and different interpupillary distance. You must try to choose your own protective glasses. Observe the side when you try it on, and make sure that the protective glasses can protect you from side injuries.
In addition, the selection of eye and face protection products must also select qualified products that meet the national special protective equipment regulations. When purchasing, pay attention to the signs and logos of the product and packaging to confirm whether it is a qualified product. Qualified products should have on the packaging: product name, manufacturer name, production date; and functional identification: such as anti-impact, anti-liquid splash and other identification.
Anti-impact eye and face protective equipment, welding eye and face protective equipment, full-face mask respirator, etc. are products that are approved by the state to implement safety signs. There should be safety signs on the product packaging or the product itself (that is, LA, which means labor safety, as shown in the figure) 9)) logo.
The safety sign is a green picture on white background, and the numbers in the black font below are compiled using the numbering method of a combination of 3 layers of numbers and letters. The two-digit number on the first level represents the year of authorization to use the safety sign; the two-digit number on the second level represents the division code of the provincial administrative region to which the manufacturer authorized to use the safety sign (imported products, the code of the second level The two-letter abbreviation indicates the country of origin of the imported product); the first three digits of the third layer code represent the name code of the product, such as welding mask 301, welding glasses 302, impact glasses 303, the latter three The digits represent the order of obtaining the authorization to use the security logo.
Eye and face protection products must be maintained and replaced frequently during use. Users need to perform maintenance according to product instructions to ensure cleanliness. When the surface is dirty, it cannot be cleaned with organic solvents or directly wiped with a dry cloth to prevent scratches on the lens. A small amount of detergent and water should be used to rinse. When the lens or frame is cracked, deformed or damaged, it must be replaced in time.